Seder 101

A basic summary of its laws in a clear and simple style by Rabbi Yochanan Schnall.

  • Erev Pesach– the day prior to Pesach

Erev Pesach is a day that has many unique laws. Some of the following are well known but others, perhaps, not as much.


  • Starting from the “halachic fourth hour” of the day it is forbidden to eat chometz. After mid-day this prohibition has the same severity of Pesach itself. Speak to a rabbi for a definition of this timeframe in your area.
  • During the entire day, it is forbidden to eat any type of matzah that would be suitable for the Seder. [1]
    • One may eat cooked foods made from matzah meal, but baked foods containing matzah meal are not permitted.[2]
    • It is questionable if those who do not eat gebrukst (any form of matzah mixed with water) may eat it on Erev Pesach[3].
  • In order to have an appetite for the Seder, towards the late afternoon, one may not eat a quantity of any food that is filling.[4]

Destroying the Chometz

  • Starting from the “halachic fifth hour” of the day it is forbidden to own or benefit from chometz. After mid-day this prohibition has the same severity as on Pesach itself. [5] Speak to a rabbi for a definition of this timeframe in your area.
  • To avoid owning chometz on Pesach many people sell it to a non-Jew. Because of the complexities involved , this sale is done through a rabbi.
  • All chometz that is not sold must be destroyed. There is a particular mitzvah to burn one’s chometz on this day[6] (obviously, prior to the halachic fifth hour).
  • One must be especially careful that the food is destroyed before the cutoff time.
    • To this end, it is a good idea to include only flammable materials when burning the chometz (not foil or plastics).
  • Although the preferred way to destroy the chometz is through burning it, if this is not practical one must destroy it in whichever manner possible.[7]
  • In addition to the above, a statement is recited that declares all chometz in one’s possession as ownerless.[8] It can be found in most siddurim.
    • This statement has legal monetary significance and it is important to recite it in the language that one understands.[9]
    • It is recited at any time before the halachic fifth hour. One who is destroying the chometz should destroy the chometz before reciting it.[10]
    • All men and women over bar/bas mitzvah recite it.[11]

Fast of the Firstborn

All firstborn sons are required to fast the day prior to Pesach.[12] This fast is customarily avoided by attending a siyum.[13] (A siyum is a meal that celebrates the completion of a tractate of Gemara; a seder of Mishna; or a book of Tanach that was studied in depth with the Rishonim[14].)

  • Regarding this fast, even a boy who was born after a miscarriage is included.[15]
  • If a firstborn son is under bar mitzvah, his father must fast on his behalf.[16]

General Laws

  • After midday, there is a restriction similar to Chol Hamoed and skilled activity is permitted only if it is necessary for Pesach.[17]
  • Similarly, we do not take a haircut, shave, cut nails or do laundry after midday (even though it is for Pesach). Those who neglected to do so earlier may still shave[18] and cut their nails[19].
  • One may give laundry to a non-Jew and receive a haircut from a non-Jew throughout the day.[20]
  • There is a particular mitzvah to shower or bathe in honor of the Holiday.[21] Men and boys go to the mikvah as well.[22]
  • One should not say that a piece of meat or fowl will be “for Pesach” since this resembles the consecration of an animal for the Pesach sacrifice.[23] Accidentally doing this does not prohibit the food.
  • It is worthy to study the laws of the Pesach sacrifice. Today that there is no Beis Hamikdosh when we study the laws of a sacrifice it is considered as though we have brought it.[24]
All Day: –   Firstborn males must fast unless they attended a siyum.

–   Matzah may not be eaten.

After the fourth halachic hour –   Eating chometz is forbidden.
After the fifth halachic hour –   Owning chometz is forbidden.

–   Before this time all chometz must be either sold or destroyed. In addition, one must also verbally disown all chometz that may be left.

After Midday –   One may not do skilled activity if it is unnecessary for the holiday.

–   One should not take a haircut, shave, cut nails and do laundry after this time. This may be permitted after the fact- see laws in detail

  • Preparing for the Seder
  • It is a mitzvah to use one’s finest silver and crystal for the Seder.[25]
    • An item that was used during the year must be purged from any absorbed chometz before it may be used on Pesach. Ask a rabbi how this is done.
  • Everyone at the Seder including children will be drinking four cups of wine or grape juice.
  • We recline while eating during the Seder (see Seder Highlights). Prepare the seats around the table with enough pillows and room so that everyone will be comfortable.
  • Men customarily wear a kittel during the Seder. A kittel is made of white, broadcloth material and looks similar to a robe.
    • During the year of mourning, it is the general custom not to wear a kittel.[26]
  • The Seder may only begin after nightfall[27] (fifty minutes after sunset).
    • For the first Seder night, the table should be set and prepared in advance so that it can start as soon as possible.[28]
    • For the second Seder however, since one may not prepare on the first day of Yom Tov for the second day no distinct preparations may begin before a minimum of fifty minutes after sunset.[29]
    • Similarly, if the first Seder falls on Saturday night, no distinct preparations may be done on Shabbos.
      • In both of these instances, activities that are not clearly being done for another day, such as straightening up the house, are always permitted.
    • When preparing for the main Seder meal, be aware that the custom is not to eat roasted meat or fowl during the Seder night.[30] Additionally, many do not dip foods other than those proscribed in the Hagadah.[31]
    • Everyone is required to eat a minimum volume of matzah and marror at the Seder and if there are many guests, these will take a long time to portion out. It might be a good idea to prepare individual portions in advance and store them in disposable bags. (Measurements are detailed in Seder Highlights)

The Seder Plate

  • The Seder plate consists of marror, charoses, karpas, zeroa (roasted foreleg or wing), and an egg that is cooked or roasted[32]. There are varying customs whether salt water is placed on the Seder plate.[33]
  • A designed “Seder Plate” is nice but not required – any plate may be used with the correct arrangement of food.
  • The two most common customs for arranging the Seder plate are:
    • Rema: Three matzos are placed in the middle, the zeroa is at the 1 o’clock position, marror at 2 o’clock, karpas at 5 o’clock, salt water at 7 o’clock, charoses at 10 o’clock and the egg at 11 o’clock.
    • Ari: Zeroa at the 1 o’clock position, charoses at 4 o’clock, romaine lettuce at 6 o’clock, karpas at 8 o’clock, egg at 11 o’clock and horseradish is placed in the middle. Three matzos are placed near the Seder plate.
      • Predominant custom follows the Ari.
    • The egg and zeroa symbolize the Korbon Pesach and Chagigah- two sacrifices that would be eaten during the Seder night.[34]
    • If a foreleg or wing is unavailable for a zeroa, any bone that it has some meat on it may be used.[35]
    • Karpas is described below under Karpas (Seder Step 3).
    • Descriptions and laws concerning marror and charoses are given in Seder Highlights.
    • If Yom Tov coincides with Shabbos, the salt water should be prepared in advance. If this was not done, it may be prepared on Shabbos in small quantities.[36]
    • The Seder plate is placed where the leader will sit.[37]
      • Some have a custom to wait until after Kadeish (Seder Step 1) before bringing out the Seder plate.[38]
    • The items on the Seder plate are for all in attendance[39] but additional quantities are often necessary.
    • The Seder Steps
    • It is a mitzvah to distribute sweets to children at the beginning of the Seder in order to arouse their curiosity.[40]
    • It is customary to recite each Seder step aloud before performing it.[41]
  1. Kadeish

The leader recites Kiddush over the first of the Four Cups.

  • All in attendance hold their individual cups of wine during Kiddush. In many homes, the custom is for everyone to quietly recite Kiddush along with the leader.
  • A “Shehechiyanu” blessing is recited at the conclusion of Kiddush. One should have in mind that this blessing is for all the mitzvos that will be done during the Seder.[42]
    • Women who previously recited the Shehechiyanu when lighting candles, should not recite it again.
  • If the Seder falls on Friday night or immediately after Shabbos, various texts are added to the Kiddush. Review your Hagadah ahead of time and be prepared.
  • The wine is drunk while reclining. One who neglected to recline does not drink a replacement cup.[43]
  • See Seder Highlights for more details regarding the Four Cups.
  1. Urchatz

Our hands are washed as for bread but without reciting a blessing.[44]

  1. Karpas

Everyone dips a piece of vegetable into salt water or vinegar, recites the standard ho’adamah blessing and eats it. Any good Hagadah should provide you with an explanation for this step as well as the previous one.

  • Customs vary between using a potato, celery, parsley or radish. If one does not have a particular custom, green vegetables are the optimal choices.[45]
  • Only a small piece is eaten. In fact, the entire amount should be less than the volume of one fluid ounce.[46]
  • When reciting the ho’adamah blessing, have in mind that it should also apply to the marror (which is eaten in a little while- see Seder Step 8).[47]
  • Many types of vinegar are grain-based and forbidden on Pesach. If you are dipping into vinegar, be sure that it is kosher for Pesach.
  1. Yachatz

The middle matzah is removed and broken into two pieces. The larger piece- referred to as the afikomen – is wrapped in a bag or a cloth and saved for Tzafun (Seder Step 11). The smaller piece is replaced between the two whole matzos. [48]

The simple explanation of this is to prepare for the recounting of the exodus, which is said over a piece of broken matzah.[49]

  • In many homes, there is a custom for the children to “steal” the afikomen and hide it.[50]
    • A word to the wise: If yours has been grabbed, be sure that you will be able to retrieve it by the end of the Seder- the child who has hidden it may have fallen asleep by then!
  1. Maggid

In this integral part of the Seder, we fulfill the Torah obligation of recounting the Exodus. It begins with the ignoble origins of our nation and continues through our slavery in Egypt, Hashem’s retribution to the Egyptians and our miraculous deliverance, which culminated with receiving the Torah.

Pay attention to the instructions in your Hagadah! At the beginning, the entire Seder plate is removed, sometimes all in attendance raise their cups of wine and at other times, the matzos are lifted or covered.

  • If the entire Maggid is too difficult to read or be present for, there are three paragraphs near the end entitled “Rabban Gamliel Haya Omer, Rabbi Gamliel would say” which are the basic minimum to read or hear. After these, one should also endeavor to recount the ten plagues with which Hashem punished the Egyptians.[51]
    • It is always a good idea to translate these paragraphs in case someone present does not understand them.
  • The Hagadah text is meant to be a springboard for further discussion of the Exodus.
  • Maggid is recited while sitting upright[52] with a full cup of wine in front of every participant.[53]
  • A long blessing concludes Maggid, followed by the blessing over wine. The second one of the Four Cups is now drunk.
    • The wine is drunk while reclining. If one forgot to recline, a compensatory cup is drunk without a blessing[54].
    • See Seder Highlights for more details regarding the Four Cups.

Four Questions

  • Near the beginning of Maggid are the Four Questions. These are asked by a child, if no child is present, the questions are asked by an adult.[55]

Ten Plagues

  • When mentioning each of the ten plagues, a small bit of wine is either removed with the index finger[56] or poured out.[57] Before Maggid continues, the cups are refilled with fresh wine.[58]
  1. Rachtzah

All participants wash their hands as for bread. The usual blessing al netilas yodayim is recited.

  1. Motzee Matzah

In this step the matzah is eaten. A minimum volume must be eaten in order to fulfill the mitzvah. (See Seder Highlights for more details.)

The leader makes two blessings. The first one, hamotzee lechem min ha’aretz, is recited while holding all three matzos (the two whole ones with the broken one in between them). The bottom matzah is then released and the blessing al achilas matzah is recited over the remaining two.[59]

A small piece from each of these two matzos is given to every participant. The leader should retain the minimum required amount from these matzos for himself. [60] [61] All the other participants will need to supplement their small pieces with additional matzah in order to have the required amount.

  • Matzah is not dipped in salt at the Seder.[62]
  • Recline while eating the matzah.[63] If one forgot to recline, another measure of matzah should be eaten while reclining.[64]
  • Once the blessings over the matzah have been recited, no unnecessary interruption should be made through Korech (Seder Step 9).[65]
  1. Marror

Marror is eaten at this step. (See Seder Highlights for instructions and measurements.)

  • Marror is dipped into charoses and then the charoses is shaken off.[66] Any good Hagadah should provide an explanation for this.
  • A blessing, found in the Hagadah, is recited before eating the marror.
  • Do not recline when eating marror.[67]
  1. Koreich

For this step, matzah and marror is eaten in the same mouthful. According to one opinion in the Mishna, the Pesach sacrifice was (and will be) eaten with matzah and marror in this manner.[68]

The matzah used in Koreich is the single remaining matzah that is before the leader.[69] Pieces of it are broken off and distributed to all participants. Since each person must have the required amount of matzah and marror, it is likely that more will need to be supplemented.

  • There are different opinions whether the matzah and marror combination is dipped into charoses.[70]
  • Recline while eating them.[71] If one forgot to recline, they do not need to be eaten again.[72]
  • See Seder Highlights for instructions and required measurements.



  1. Shulchan Oreich

The main meal is now eaten.

  • It is proper to recline throughout the meal.[73]
  • Be careful not to eat too much! The afikomen matzah must be eaten with some appetite.[74]
  • There are various customs regarding which foods are and are not eaten during Shulchan Oreich:
    • It is customary not to dip foods during this step. [75]
    • The custom is to eat the hard-boiled/roasted egg from the Seder-plate during this step.[76]
    • There is also a widely accepted custom not to eat the zeroa from the Seder-plate, or any other roasted meat or fowl during the entire Seder.[77]
      • Since it was used for a mitzvah, the zeroa should not be discarded. Rather, it should be eaten sometime the following day.
  1. Tzafun

Matzah is eaten at this point in remembrance of the Pesach sacrifice which was also eaten at the end of the meal. The Afikomen that had been hidden since Yachatz (Seder Step 4) is used for this step. Pieces from it are distributed to all of the participants.

These pieces usually need to be supplemented with additional matzah in order for each person to have the minimum requirement. See Seder Highlights for required measurements.

  • If the matzah from Yachatz is unavailable or insufficient, any matzah may be used.
  • The afikomen is eaten while reclining.[78] If one neglected to recline and the next step began, no compensation is necessary. Otherwise, an additional measurement of matzah should be eaten provided that one has an appetite.[79]
  • The afikomen should be eaten within the first half of the night.[80]
  • Since the afikomen is eaten in remembrance of the Pesach sacrifice, a few laws that pertain to the sacrifice are applied to the afikomen as well.
    • One may not switch seats to a different table in the middle of eating the afikomen.[81]
    • The afikomen taste is to remain in our mouths and no solid food may be eaten after it.[82] If something was eaten and the next step has not yet begun,[83] the correct measurement of matzah should be eaten again.[84]
    • On the first Seder night, one may only drink mellow beverages such as water or tea after the afikomen.[85] (Of course the last two cups of wine are permitted.) On the second night, there is no restriction for beverages. [86]
  1. Bareich

Everyone’s cups are rinsed out and filled with wine. [87] Birchas Hamazon will be recited over them.[88]

  • If there is a mezuman, it is customary for the leader of the Seder to lead it.[89]
  • Ya’aleh V’yavo is recited during Birchas Hamazon. If it is Friday night, retzay is also inserted.
    • If either of these is omitted, the entire Birchas Hamazon must be repeated.[90]
  • Two additional harachamans are recited- one that is said throughout the holiday and one which is exclusive to the Seder.
  • Following Birchas Hamazon, the blessing over wine is recited and the third of the Four Cups is drunk while reclining.
    • If one forgot to recline no compensatory cup is drunk.[91]
    • See Seder Highlights for more details regarding the Four Cups.
  • At the conclusion of Birchas Hamazon, a cup is poured in honor of Eliyahu Hanavi (Elijah the Prophet),[92] the front door is opened and a specific paragraph from the Hagadah is recited.
    • Some have a custom to refill all the cups when filling the cup for Eliyahu Hanavi.[93]
  • The door is closed and the Seder resumes with the next step.
  1. Hallel

Specific psalms of thanksgiving to Hashem are recited now for all that He has done, and continues to do for us.

  • Hallel is recited with a full cup of wine in front of every participant.[94]
  • If possible, at least three people should recite the hallel together (this could include women and children).[95] When reciting “hodu lashem ki tov…” and “ana Hashem…” one male leads and the others respond just as it is done in the synagogue.[96]
    • It is worthy to invite others to the Seder if just for the opportunity to recite hallel in this manner![97]
  • Ashkenaz and Sefard versions of the Hagadah conclude this step Be sure to have a Hagadah that reflects your custom.
  • At the conclusion of Hallel, the blessing over wine is recited and the fourth cup is drunk while reclining.
    • See Seder Highlights for details regarding the Four Cups.
    • If one did not recline, no compensatory cup of wine is necessary.[98]
    • Recite the after-blessing for wine.
  1. Nirtzah

The Seder concludes with the hope that we have done our obligation properly and that next year we will observe it in Yerushalayim.

After the Seder

  • Following the Seder, one continues to discuss the exodus until falling asleep.[99] Many have the custom to recite the Book of Shir Hashirim (Song of Songs).[100]
  • Since the night of the Seder has a special divine protection, it is customary to recite just the first paragraph of the bedtime shema with the hamapil[101]

Seder Highlights

  • General Rules

Educating Children

  • During the Seder night there is a particular mitzvah for parents to teach their children about the Exodus (Shemos 13: 8). In fact, many activities of the Seder have the sole purpose of stimulating children’s curiosity.[102]
  • In general, when children are old enough to comprehend a mitzvah’s concept, their parents are obligated to train them in its performance[103]. (This often begins at age five or six.[104])
  • Children use the same correct, kosher type of materials similar to adults[105] although not with the same volume. (For example, they must eat the required type of matzah but not necessarily the same amount.)

Timing of the Obligations

  • The mitzvos of eating matzah and marror are to be completed before the middle of the night.[106] (This is not 12am, but halfway through the nighttime hours.)
    • Ideally, the entire Seder through Hallel should be concluded by then as well.[107]
    • In an extenuating circumstance that a Seder started close to the middle of the night, Kiddush is recited immediately followed by washing and eating matzah and marror. Only then does the Seder start from the beginning- skipping the steps that were already performed.[108]
  • The Four Cups

We are obligated to drink four cups of wine during the Seder. These cups commemorate the four levels of redemption[109] that Hashem provided us with.[110]

  • The leader of the Seder does not fill his own cup.[111]
    • Many homes apply this tradition to all in attendance and all cups are filled by one another.
  • These cups must be drunk at the designated intervals of the Seder. Therefore, someone who is unable to remain present throughout the Seder should be sure to recite or listen to the Hagadah texts so that the cups are drunk at their appropriate times.[112]

Cup Features

  • It is a mitzvah to use as beautiful a cup as possible.[113]
    • The cup should be non-disposable. Without an alternative, a disposable one is permitted.[114]

Type of Beverage

  • Wine is the ideal beverage for the Four Cups,[115] even using wine for some of cups is virtuous.[116]
    • Red wine is ideal over white unless the white wine available is of better quality.[117]
    • If the wine available is too strong, it may be diluted with grape juice or a very small percentage of water.[118]
  • After wine, grape juice is second best.[119] If necessary, the grape juice may be diluted with a very small percentage of water.[120]
  • If none of these options are feasible, speak to a rabbi for further possible leniencies.[121]


  • In general, the minimum cup volume used at the Seder should be no less than 2.9 fluid oz. [122]
    • The obligation to recite Kiddush on Friday night is from the Torah and a larger volume is required. Therefore, when the Seder occurs on Friday night, the leader’s first cup (over which Kiddush is recited) should have a minimum volume of 4.42 ounces.[123]
      • For homes that everyone recites Kiddush together with the leader, this measurement applies to everyone’s first cup.
    • Ideally, the entire cup or at least the majority of the cup should be drunk each time.[124]
      • Because of this, it is a good idea to use a cup close to the minimum permitted capacity.[125]
    • If it is difficult to drink the majority of the cup, a minimum of 1.5 ounces[126], or at the very least, three quarters of an ounce is required.[127]
    • Particularly for the fourth cup, one should endeavor to drink at least 2.9 ounces.[128]
      • These minimum volumes should be consumed in a normal fashion without significant interruption.[129]
    • Regardless of how much will be drunk, the cup is filled to capacity for every one of the four cups.[130]
    • Matzah

Matzah represents two aspects of our redemption from Egypt: As the “poor man’s” bread, it was what we ate during our subjugation.[131] It also represents the expeditiousness in which Hashem took us out- for the bread that we prepared for the journey did not have time to rise.[132]

There are three steps during the Seder that matzah is eaten: Motzee Matzah (Seder Step 7), Koreich (Seder Step 9) and Tzafun (Seder Step 11).

  • It is not enough to use “kosher for Passover” matzah for the Seder night; rather, the matzah must also be shemurah (protected). From its earliest stages of production, “Shemurah matzah” is protected from contact with water for the use of the seder. [133] Shemurah matzah is always identified somewhere on its packaging.


  • It is sometimes unclear what measurement values mentioned in Halacha equal in modern-day measurements. Therefore, there are various opinions regarding the minimum volume of matzah that must be eaten at each of its steps. Three contemporary ones are half of a machine matzah[134], two-thirds of one[135], or an entire one[136]. (A machine matzah has a square-shape, measuring approximately 7 x 6.25 inches.)
    • Hand matzos (the round type) are thicker, for them these measurements equal one-third, half, or two-thirds of a matzah.
    • It would seem that since on the first night of Pesach it is a Biblical obligation to eat matzah, one who can should endeavor to eat a larger volume for at least one of the steps.
    • Those who have difficulty eating due to age or illness should consult a rabbi for smaller measurements.[137]
  • At every step that the matzah is eaten, it must be in a normal, continuous manner without unnecessary interruption. It must be consumed within nine minutes and ideally within two minutes.[138]
  • Marror

Marror reminds us of the bitter affliction we experienced in Egypt.[139] Today, the obligation to eat marror is a Rabbinic one since the Torah commandment applies only it is eaten together with a Pesach sacrifice[140].

  • The two common types of marror are romaine lettuce and freshly ground horseradish.
  • Romaine lettuce is the ideal type according to Halacha.[141]
  • If these two are unavailable, endive is a third option.[142]
  • All marror must be used while in its raw state- not jarred or cooked.[143]
  • Leaves should not soak in water for longer than twenty-four hours as this has a halachic status similar to cooking [144].
  • If romaine lettuce is used, be aware that it often contains small insects. Eating an insect violates many Torah prohibitions[145] and it is better to avoid eating marror altogether than to inadvertently eat one.[146] These insects are identifiable but since they are not readily apparent consult a knowledgeable person for guidance before inspecting the lettuce yourself.




  • There are two steps in which Marror is eaten: Marror (Seder Step 8) and Koreich (Seder Step 9)
  • For Marror, the minimum amount that is to be eaten is slightly more than 1 fluid ounce.[147] It is easy to measure this amount of horseradish. For romaine leaves, it is approximately the surface area of 8 x 10 inches. [148] Some write that a volume slightly larger than one large leaf is sufficient.[149]
  • For Koreich, it is sufficient to use .7 fluid ounces of horseradish, but the romaine lettuce should be the same measurement as above.[150]
  • The marror is to be eaten in a normal, continuous manner with no unnecessary interruption. It is ideal to eat it within two minutes but at the very least, it must be eaten within nine minutes.[151]
  • Marror must be chewed in order to fulfill the obligation[152].


Before marror is eaten, it is dipped into charoses. Charoses is a mixture of ground fruit, nuts and red wine.[153]

  • So that the marror taste is not compromised, the charoses is shaken off before the marror is eaten. [154]
  • The fruit and nuts used in charoses are from those that the Jewish People are compared to. These include apples, figs, dates, pomegranates, walnuts and almonds.[155]
  • Cinnamon and ginger in their unground form are also customarily added.[156]
  • Charoses should have a mortar-like consistency.[157]
  • Additional wine is added to charoses just before the marror is dipped into it.[158]
  • Charoses should not be made on Shabbos. If the Seder falls on Friday night and one forgot to prepare it in advance, some changes must be applied (see footnote[159]).
  • Reclining

During the Seder, we recline while we eat in the manner of free, distinguished people. This is in commemoration of the freedom that Hashem provided for us on this night.[160]

  • Women do not have to recline.[161]
  • Reclining is specifically done towards the left side.[162] Left handed people recline in this direction as well.[163]
  • It is proper to use pillows or cushions when reclining[164].
  • For some Seder Steps there is no reclining when eating, they are noted at their respective steps.
  • If reclining was neglected, there are instances that the step is redone in the correct manner- these are also noted.
  • According to one opinion, since it is no longer normal to recline when eating throughout the year, there is no obligation to do so at the Seder. This opinion can be relied upon in difficult circumstances.[165]
  • One who is eating the Seder by a teacher who teaches him Torah reclines only if his teacher gives him specific permission.[166]
  • A mourner within the mourning period for a close relative reclines in a subdued manner.[167]

[1] Rema 471:2

[2] Mishna Berura 471:20; see Sha’ar Hatziyun 444:1


[4] Shulchan Aruch 471:1, Mishna Berura ad loc.

[5] Shulchan Aruch 443:1

[6] Rema 445:1, Mishna Berura 445:7

[7] Shulchan Aruch 445:1

[8] Shulchan Aruch 434:2

[9] Rema 434:2

[10] Rema 434:2

[11] Halachos of Pesach IX C 5

[12] Shulchan Aruch 470:1

[13] Mishna Berura 470:10

[14] Iggros Moshe Orach Chayim volume 1 #157

[15] Mishna Berura 470:2

[16] Rema 470:2

[17] Shulchan Aruch 468:1,2

[18] See Shiurei Halacha by Rabbi Shmuel Felder

[19] Mishna Berura 468:5

[20] Mishna Berura 468:5,7

[21] Rema 471:3

[22] Mishna Berura 471:22

[23] Shulchan Aruch 669:1, Mishna Berura 669:2

[24] Mishna Berura 471:22

[25] Shulchan Aruch 472:2

[26] Mishna Berura 472:12; Iggros Moshe Orach Chayimvolume 4 #62

[27] Shulchan Aruch 472:1, Mishna Berura 472:5

[28] Shulchan Aruch 472:1

[29] Shulchan Aruch 503:1, Mishna Berura 503:1

[30] Mishna Berura 476:1

[31] Rema 476:2

[32] Shulchan Aruch, Rema 473:4

[33] Shulchan Aruch, Rema 473:4; see Aruch Hashulchan 473:11

[34] Mishna Berura 473:23

[35] Mishna Berura 473:27

[36] Mishna Berura 473:21

[37] Shulchan Aruch 473:4

[38] See Shulchan Aruch 473:4

[39] Mishna Berura 473:17

[40] Shulchan Aruch 472:16

[41] Yesod V’shoresh Ha’avodah 9:6

[42] See Kol Dodi Laws of the Seder Ch. 7 P. 5

[43] Mishna Berura 472:21

[44] Shulchan Aruch 473:6

[45] See Kol Dodi Laws of the Seder Ch. 9 P. 2

[46] Shulchan Aruch 473:6

[47] Mishna Berura 473:55

[48] Shulchan Aruch 473:6

[49] Shulchan Aruch Harav 473:36

[50] Chok Ya’akov 472:2

[51] Mishna Berura 473:4

[52] Mishna Berura 473:71

[53] Rambam Yad Hachazakah – Chametz Umatzah 7:10

[54] Mishna Berura 472:21

[55] Shulchan Aruch 473:7

[56] Mishna Berurah 473:74

[57] Sha’ar Hatzion 473:81

[58] See Kol Dodi Laws of the Seder Ch. 11 P. 12

[59] Shulchan Aruch 475:1; Rema 475:7

[60] See Hilchos Chag Bchag chapter 16 note 12

[61] Shulchan Aruch 475:1; see Kol Dodi Laws of the Seder 14:11 who equates the practical volume of a Torah obligation with the Rabbinic volume

[62] Rema 475:1

[63] Shulchan Aruch 475:1

[64] Mishna Berura 472:22

[65] Shulchan Aruch 475:1

[66] Shulchan Aruch 475:1

[67] Shulchan Aruch 475:1

[68] Pesachim 115A

[69] Shulchan Aruch 175:1,Rema 175:7

[70] Shulchan Aruch, Rema 175:1; see Mishna Berura 175:19

[71] Shulchan Aruch 175:1

[72] Shulchan Aruch Harav 175:20

[73] Rema 172:7

[74] Rema 176:1

[75] Rema 176:2

[76] Rema 176:2

[77] Mishna Berura 176:1

[78] Shulchan Aruch 177:1

[79] See Iggros Moshe Orach Chayim volume 3 #67

[80] See Mishna Berura 677:6

[81] Rema 678:1

[82] Shulchan Aruch 678:1

[83] Kol Dodi Laws of the Seder Ch. 18 P. 9

[84] Mishna Berura 678:1

[85] Mishna Berura 681:1

[86] Ba’er Heiteiv 481:3

[87] Mishna Berura 479:1

[88] Shulchan Aruch 479:1

[89] Rema 479:1, Mishna Berura ad loc.

[90] Shulchan Aruch 188:6

[91] Rema 172:7

[92] Mishna Berura 180:10

[93] Shulchan Aruch Harav 180:1

[94] Shulchan Aruch 180:1

[95] Shulchan Aruch 179:1, Mishna Berura 179:9

[96] Mishna Berura 179:9 (A minor may be the leader as well)

[97] Mishna Berura 179:9

[98] Rema 172:7

[99] Shulchan Aruch 481:2

[100] Chayei Adam 130:19:16

[101] Rema 481:2

[102] Mishna Berura 472:50

[103] Mishna Berura 343:2,3

[104] Mishna Berura 128:123

[105] Biur Halacha 657 “k’dei”

[106] Mishna Berura 477:6

[107] Rema 477:1

[108] Mishna Berura 477:6

[109] Shemos 5:6-7

[110] Chayei Adam 130:10

[111] Rema 173:1

[112] Biur Halacha 472 “Shelo”

[113] Shulchan Aruch 472:2

[114] Iggros Moshe Orach Chayim volume 3 #39

[115] Shulchan Aruch 472:10, Mishna Berura 472:37

[116] פשוט

[117] Shulchan Aruch, Rema 472:11

[118] Mishna Berura 472:37

[119] Halachos of Pesach XX B 5

[120] Halachos of Pesach XX B 5

[121] See Mishna Berura 472:37

[122] See Kol Dodi Laws of the Seder Ch. 2 P. 6

[123] See Kol Dodi Laws of the Seder Ch. 2 P. 5

[124] Mishna Berura 472:30

[125] Mishna Berura 472:33

[126] See Mishna Berura 472:33

[127] See Kol Dodi Laws of the Seder Chapter 2 Page 9

[128] Mishna Berura 672:30

[129] Rema 672:9

[130] Rema 183:2

[131] This is understood from the simple translation of “Ha Lachma Anya etc.”

[132] Pesachim 116B

[133] Mishna Berura 453:21

[134] Star K Pesach Directory in the name of Rabbi Heinemann

[135] Star K Pesach Directory in the name of Rabbi Bodner

[136] Kol Dodi Laws of the Seder Ch. 14 Paragraph 11  Kol Dodi Laws of the Seder Ch. 18 Paragraph 3

[137] See Halachos of Pesach pg. 242- 243

[138] Kol Dodi Laws of the Seder Ch. 14 Paragraph 7

[139] Pesachim 116B

[140] Tur Orach Chayim 472

[141] Shulchan Aruch 473:5

[142] See Halachos of Pesach XXI B5

[143] Shulchan Aruch 473:5

[144] Mishna Berura 473:38

[145] See Shulchan Aruch Yoreh Dayah chapter 84

[146] פשוט!

[147] Kol Dodi Laws of the Seder Ch. 15 Paragraph 6

[148] Kol Dodi Laws of the Seder Ch. 14 Paragraph 20

[149] Adapted from Sefer Kezayis Hashalem, pages 98-101

[150] Kol Dodi Laws of the Seder Ch. 16 Paragraph 11

[151] Kol Dodi Laws of the Seder Ch. 15 Paragraph 6

[152] Shulchan Aruch 475:3

[153] Rema 473:5

[154] Shulchan Aruch 475:1

[155] Rema 473:5

[156] Rema 473:5

[157] Rema 473:5

[158] Chayei Adam chapter 130

[159] Mishna Berura 321:68: The solids must be chopped with a knife rather than a grinding implement. The solids must be chopped into larger than normal pieces. The solids should be added to the wine and not the other way around. The ratio of wine to solids should result in a pourable consistency. The mixture cannot be stirred with a utensil but rather the entire container should be shaken.

[160] Rambam Yad Hachazakah Chametz Umatzah 7:7

[161] Rema 472:4

[162] Mishna Berura 472:7

[163] Rema 472:3

[164] See Kol Dodi Laws of the Seder Chapter 5 Page 18

[165] Rema 472:7

[166] Mishna Berura 472:17

[167] Mishna Berura 472:13

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